Disparities in access to minimally invasive surgery for inflammatory bowel disease and outcomes by insurance status: analysis of the 2015 to 2019 National Inpatient Sample
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INTRODUCTION: Despite being the preferred modality for treatment of colorectal cancer and diverticular disease, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been adopted slowly for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to its technical challenges. The present study aims to assess the disparities in use of MIS for patients with IBD. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from October 2015 to December 2019 was conducted. Patients < 65 years of age were stratified by either private insurance or Medicaid. The primary outcome was access to MIS and secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, complications, length of stay (LOS), and total admission cost. Univariate and multivariate regression was utilized to determine the association between insurance status and outcomes. RESULTS: The NIS sample population included 7866 patients with private insurance and 1689 with Medicaid. Medicaid patients had lower odds of receiving MIS than private insurance patients (OR 0.85, 95% CI [0.74-0.97], p = 0.017), and experienced more postoperative genitourinary complications (OR 1.36, 95% CI [1.08-1.71], p = 0.009). In addition, LOS was longer by 1.76 days (p < 0.001) and the total cost was higher by $5043 USD (p < 0.001) in the Medicaid group. Independent predictors of receiving MIS were age < 40 years old, female sex, highest income quartile, diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, elective admission, and care at teaching hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Medicaid are less likely to receive MIS, have longer lengths of stay, and incur higher costs for the surgical management of their IBD. Further investigations into disparities in inflammatory bowel disease care for Medicaid patients are warranted.
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