Monitoring lower limb biomechanical asymmetry and psychological measures in athletic populations—A scoping review Journal Articles uri icon

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  • AbstractBackgroundLower limb biomechanics, including asymmetry, are frequently monitored to determine sport performance level and injury risk. However, contributing factors extend beyond biomechanical and asymmetry measures to include psychological, sociological, and environmental factors. Unfortunately, inadequate research has been conducted using holistic biopsychosocial models to characterize sport performance and injury risk. Therefore, this scoping review summarized the research landscape of studies concurrently assessing measures of lower limb biomechanics, asymmetry, and introspective psychological state (e.g., pain, fatigue, perceived exertion, stress, etc.) in healthy, competitive athletes.MethodsA systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science Core Collections was designed and conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Fifty‐one articles were included in this review.ResultsSignificant relationships between biomechanics (k = 22 studies) or asymmetry (k = 20 studies) and introspective state were found. Increased self‐reported pain was associated with decreased range of motion, strength, and increased lower limb asymmetry. Higher ratings of perceived exertion were related to increased lower limb asymmetry, self‐reported muscle soreness, and worse jump performance. Few studies (k = 4) monitored athletes longitudinally throughout one or more competitive season(s).ConclusionThis review highlights the need for concurrent analysis of introspective, psychological state, and biomechanical asymmetry measures along with longitudinal research to understand the contributing factors to sport performance and injury risk from biopsychosocial modeling. In doing so, this framework of biopsychosocial preventive and prognostic patient‐centered practices may provide an actionable means of optimizing health, well‐being, and sport performance in competitive athletes.


  • Keogh, Joshua AJ
  • Waddington, Emma E
  • Masood, Zaryan
  • Mahmood, Sobia
  • Palanisamy, Anil C
  • Ruder, Matthew C
  • Karsan, Sameena
  • Bishop, Chris
  • Jordan, Matthew J
  • Heisz, Jennifer
  • Kobsar, Dylan

publication date

  • November 2023