Association of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) and cigarette solo and dual use with alcohol-related consequences among US adults
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INTRODUCTION: Research reports a robust association between combustible cigarette use and alcohol use frequency and severity. Extension to the emerging landscape of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use is needed to inform prevention and treatment strategies. METHOD: We evaluated data from the 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Respondents included adults reporting cigarettes or ENDS solo or dual use. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluated associations with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and alcohol-related risky behavior (i.e., heavy drinking, binge alcohol use, and driving after drinking) compared to never use controls and respondents with a history, but not current, use of cigarettes or ENDS. RESULTS: Multivariable models showed greater odds of AUD for respondents with dual ENDS and cigarette use (AOR = 10.2), ENDS use (AOR = 6.27), cigarette use (AOR = 4.45), and a history, but not ongoing, use (AOR = 2.60) relative to respondents with no use history. Similarly, respondents with dual use (AOR = 3.94), ENDS use (AOR = 2.41), and cigarette use (AOR = 1.71) had greater odds of AUD relative to those with a history of, but not ongoing, use. The association between dual use and AUD was greater for adults ages 21-25 (AOR = 16.2) than for adults over 25 (AOR = 7.82). Cigarette and ENDS solo and dual-use were similarly associated with greater odds of alcohol-related risky behavior relative to control groups. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that nicotine use and dual use may be associated with indicators of problematic drinking. These results offer insight into emerging licit polysubstance profiles and call for mechanistic research to inform prevention and intervention efforts.
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