Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are the 2 most common primary bone sarcomas, occurring predominantly in pediatric patients, with the incidence of osteosarcoma correlating with periods of peak bone-growth velocity. Although survival outcomes have plateaued over the past several decades, ongoing treatment advances have improved function, decreased infection rates, and improved other clinical outcomes in patients with bone tumors. Recently, the Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumor Surgery (PARITY) trial addressed the serious problem of surgical site infection (SSI) and the lack of consensus regarding the appropriate prophylactic postoperative antibiotic regimen. The objective of the present secondary analysis of the PARITY trial was to characterize the modern treatment and surgical and oncologic outcomes of pediatric patients with bone tumors at 1 year postoperatively.
The PARITY trial included patients ≥12 years old with a bone tumor or soft-tissue sarcoma that was invading the femur or tibia, necessitating osseous resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction. This pediatric subanalysis of the PARITY trial data included all PARITY patients ≤18 years old. As in the main PARITY study, patients were randomized to either a 5-day or 1-day course of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary outcome measure was the development of an SSI within 1 year, and secondary outcomes included antibiotic-related adverse events, unplanned additional operations, local recurrence, metastasis, and death.
A total of 151 patients were included. An adjudicated SSI occurred in 27 patients (17.9%). There was no difference in the rate of any SSI between the 5-day and 1-day antibiotic groups (hazard ratio [HR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4 to 1.9; p = 0.82). Antibiotic-related complications occurred in 13 patients (8.6%), with no difference noted between groups (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.4; p = 0.18). A total of 45 patients (29.8%) required a return to the operating room within the first postoperative year, which corresponded with a 68.8% reoperation-free rate of survival at 1 year when accounting for competing risks. The most common reason for reoperation was infection (29 of 45; 64.4%). A total of 7 patients (4.6%) required subsequent amputation of the operative extremity, and an additional 6 patients (4.0%) required implant revision within 12 months. A total of 36 patients (23.8%) developed metastases, and 6 patients (4.0%) developed a local recurrence during the first postoperative year. A total of 11 patients (7.3%) died during the study period. There were no significant differences in oncologic outcomes between the 5-day and 1-day antibiotic groups (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.5-1.8; p = 0.92).
There were no significant differences in surgical or oncologic outcomes between pediatric patients who underwent a 1-day versus 5-day antibiotic regimen following endoprosthetic reconstruction in the PARITY trial. Surgeons should be aware of and counsel patients and caregivers regarding the 30% rate of reoperation and the risks of infection (17.9%), death (7.3%), amputation (4.6%), and implant revision (4%) within the first postoperative year.
Level of Evidence:
Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.