Celebrity endorsements, whitening products, and consumer purchase intentions: A review of literature Journal Articles uri icon

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  • AbstractPurposeThe purpose of this study was to examine how much celebrity endorsement stimulates skin color racism in the cosmetics industry.Design/Methodology/ApproachThe data were collected from Google Scholar and Web of Science published articles, and researchers had chosen 45 research articles. Some of the research articles used a quantitative research approach while others had used qualitative research approach. And for the current study, content analysis has been used.FindingsThe study finds that celebrity endorsement does influence and promote racism, implying that when celebrities promote fairness products, people perceive themselves inferior due to darker skin tone that gives birth to the notion of racism. Brand Image intervenes in the relationship between Celebrity Endorsement and Racism, and also, intervenes in the relationship between Celebrity Endorsement and Purchase Intention.LimitationsThis study is only limited to Google Scholar and Web of Science directory. Only forty‐five articles were taken from 2001 to 2021 year. Real examples were taken from all over the world, but especially from the Less Developed countries like Pakistan and India due to the huge population, rising income, and surging cosmetics industry. Hence, the findings of this study cannot be generalized to the Technologically Advanced Countries.ImplicationsIt is obvious that firms design advertisement campaigns that can get consumers’ attention. For this purpose, they engage celebrities to evoke more interest and awareness as well as perception. The study will help the management of different brands to understand that how they can improve their advertisements in a way that does not promote racism. And the celebrities, signing contracts with brands that promote racism, will keep in mind the negative influence these endorsements have on society while companies will make sure that they are also not promoting racism by making such promotional campaigns.


  • Khan, Aima
  • Sabir, Raja Irfan
  • Majid, Muhammad Bilal
  • Javaid, Muhammad Umair
  • Anwar ul Haq, Muhammad
  • Mehmood, Hamid

publication date

  • October 2022