Cannabis involvement and demand in frequent concentrate users versus predominantly flower users Journal Articles uri icon

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  • OBJECTIVE: Cannabis concentrate products contain more of the intoxicating cannabinoid, tetrahydrocannabinol, than flower products and, thus, may produce greater harm. Indeed, concentrate use is associated with greater cannabis dependence and problems (e.g., anxiety) than flower use. Given this, continued examination of concentrate versus flower use differences on associations with various cannabis measures may be useful. These measures include behavioral economic demand for cannabis (i.e., its subjective reinforcing value), use frequency, and dependence. METHOD: In the present study of 480 cannabis users, those who were frequent concentrate users (n = 176) were compared with predominantly flower users (n = 304) regarding the relationship of two latent drug demand metrics assessed by the Marijuana Purchase Task to cannabis use frequency (i.e., days of cannabis use) and cannabis dependence (i.e., Marijuana Dependence Scale scores). RESULTS: Two previously observed latent factors emerged, based on confirmatory factor analysis: amplitude, reflecting maximum consumption, and persistence, reflecting cost insensitivity. Group comparisons showed that amplitude was greater among the concentrate versus flower group, but no difference was found for persistence. Further, using structural path invariance testing, the factors were differentially associated with cannabis use frequency across groups. Amplitude was positively associated with frequency for both groups, whereas persistence was negatively associated with frequency for the flower group. Neither factor was associated with dependence for either group. CONCLUSIONS: Findings continue to indicate that the demand metrics, although distinct, can be parsimoniously condensed into two factors. In addition, method of administration (i.e., concentrate vs. flower use) may affect how demand for cannabis relates to frequency of use. Associations were notably stronger with frequency relative to dependence.


  • Skrzynski, Carillon J
  • Napolitan, Alexander
  • Hitchcock, Leah
  • Minhas, Meenu
  • MacKillop, James
  • Bryan, Angela D
  • Bidwell, L Cinnamon

publication date

  • March 2023