Evidence about the association between calculated remnant cholesterol (RC) and risk of heart failure (HF) in participants with diabetes mellitus (DM) remains sparse and limited.
We included a total of 22 230 participants with DM from the UK Biobank for analyses. Participants were categorized into three groups based on their baseline RC measures: low (with a mean RC of 0.41 mmol/L), moderate (0.66 mmol/L), and high (1.04 mmol/L). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between RC groups and HF risk. We performed discordance analysis to evaluate whether RC was associated with HF risk independently of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).
During a mean follow-up period of 11.5 years, there were a total of 2232 HF events observed. The moderate RC group was significantly related with a 15% increased risk of HF when compared with low RC group (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01—1.32), while the high RC group with a 23% higher HF risk (HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.05–1.43). There was significant relationship between RC as a continuous measure and the increased HF risk (P < 0.01). The association between RC and risk of HF was stronger in participants with HbA1c level ≥ 53 mmol/mol when compared with HbA1c < 53 mmol/mol (P for interaction = 0.02). Results from discordance analyses showed that RC was significantly related to HF risk independent of LDL-C measures.
Elevated RC was significantly associated with risk of HF in patients with DM. Moreover, RC was significantly related to HF risk independent of LDL-C measures. These findings may highlight the importance of RC management to HF risk in patients with DM.