Consensus Statement No. 434: Simulation in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Journal Articles uri icon

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  • OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive and current overview of the evidence for the value of simulation for education, team training, patient safety, and quality improvement in obstetrics and gynaecology, to familiarize readers with principles to consider in developing a simulation program, and to provide tools and references for simulation advocates. TARGET POPULATION: Providers working to improve health care for Canadian women and their families; patients and their families. OUTCOMES: Simulation has been validated in the literature as contributing to positive outcomes in achieving learning objectives, maintaining individual and team competence, and enhancing patient safety. Simulation is a well-developed modality with established principles to maximize its utility and create a safe environment for simulation participants. Simulation is most effective when it involves interprofessional collaboration, institutional support, and regular repetition. BENEFITS, HARMS, AND COSTS: This modality improves teamwork skills, patient outcomes, and health care spending. Upholding prescribed principles of psychological safety when implementing a simulation program minimizes harm to participants. However, simulation can be an expensive tool requiring human resources, equipment, and time. EVIDENCE: Articles published between 2003 and 2022 were retrieved through searches of Medline and PubMed using the keywords "simulation" and "simulator." The search was limited to articles published in English and French. The articles were reviewed for their quality, relevance, and value by the SOGC Simulation Working Group. Expert opinion from relevant seminal books was also considered. VALIDATION METHODS: The authors rated the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. See online Appendix A (Tables A1 for definitions and A2 for interpretations of strong and conditional [weak] recommendations). INTENDED AUDIENCE: All health care professionals working to improve Canadian women's health, and relevant stakeholders, including granting agencies, physician/nursing/midwifery colleges, accreditation bodies, academic centres, hospitals, and training programs.


  • Sansregret, Andrée
  • Garber, Adam
  • Freire-Lizama, Tatiana
  • Monton, Luis
  • Mueller, Valerie
  • Papalia, Nicholas
  • Ruiter, P James A
  • Shore, Eliane M
  • Suri, Michelle

publication date

  • March 2023