Neonicotinoids have been among the most widely and abundantly used insecticides for most of the current century. The effects of these substances on nontarget terrestrial and aquatic organisms have resulted in a significant decrease in their use in many parts of the world. In response, the application of several novel classes of insecticides including diamides, ketoenols, pyridines, and butenolides has significantly increased. The hexapod subclass Collembola is an ecologically significant and widely distributed group of soil invertebrates often found in leaf litter and in surficial soils. We exposed the parthenogenic collembolan species
Folsomia candidato six insecticides in a sandy loam soil for 28 days, including two neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam and clothianidin), a diamide (cyantraniliprole), a ketoenol (spirotetramat), a pyridine (flonicamid), and a butanolide (flupyradifurone) to assess the effect of each insecticide on survival and reproduction. Clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and cyantraniliprole (median effective concentration [EC50] values for reproduction: 0.19, 0.38, and 0.49 mg/kg soil, respectively) had a greater effect on survival and reproduction of F. candidathan flupyradifurone, spirotetramat, and flonicamid (EC50 values for reproduction: 0.73, >3.08, and 5.20 mg/kg soil, respectively). All significant impacts found in our study were observed at concentrations below concentrations of the active ingredients that would be expected in agricultural soils. Environ Toxicol Chem2023;42:1516–1528. © 2023 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistrypublished by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.