General versus central adiposity as risk factors for cardiovascular-related outcomes in a high-risk population with type 2 diabetes: a post hoc analysis of the REWIND trial Academic Article uri icon

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  • Abstract Background In clinical practice, anthropometric measures other than BMI are rarely assessed yet may be more predictive of cardiovascular (CV) risk. We analyzed the placebo group of the REWIND CV Outcomes Trial to compare several anthropometric measures as baseline risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related outcomes in participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Data from the REWIND trial placebo group (N = 4952) were analyzed. All participants had T2D, age ≥ 50 years, had either a previous CV event or CV risk factors, and a BMI of ≥ 23 kg/m2. Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate if BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) were significant risk factors for major adverse CV events (MACE)-3, CVD-related mortality, all-cause mortality, and heart failure (HF) requiring hospitalization. Models were adjusted for age, sex, and additional baseline factors selected by LASSO method. Results are presented for one standard deviation increase of the respective anthropometric factor. Results Participants in the placebo group experienced 663 MACE-3 events, 346 CVD-related deaths, 592 all-cause deaths, and 226 events of HF requiring hospitalization during the median follow-up of 5.4 years. WHR and WC, but not BMI, were identified as independent risk factors of MACE-3 (hazard ratio [HR] for WHR: 1.11 [95% CI 1.03 to 1.21]; p = 0.009; HR for WC: 1.12 [95% CI 1.02 to 1.22]; p = 0.012). WC adjusted for hip circumference (HC) showed the strongest association with MACE-3 compared to WHR, WC, or BMI unadjusted for each other (HR: 1.26 [95% CI 1.09 to 1.46]; p = 0.002). Results for CVD-related mortality and all-cause mortality were similar. WC and BMI were risk factors for HF requiring hospitalization, but not WHR or WC adjusted for HC (HR for WC: 1.34 [95% CI 1.16 to 1.54]; p < 0.001; HR for BMI: 1.33 [95% CI 1.17 to 1.50]; p < 0.001). No significant interaction with sex was observed. Conclusions In this post hoc analysis of the REWIND placebo group, WHR, WC and/or WC adjusted for HC were risk factors for MACE-3, CVD-related mortality, and all-cause mortality; while BMI was only a risk factor for HF requiring hospitalization. These findings indicate the need for anthropometric measures that consider body fat distribution when assessing CV risk.


  • Franek, Edward
  • Pais, Prem
  • Basile, Jan
  • Nicolay, Claudia
  • Raha, Sohini
  • Hickey, Ana
  • Ahmad, Nadia N
  • Konig, Manige
  • Kan, Hong
  • Gerstein, Hertzel Chaim

publication date

  • March 10, 2023