To conduct a systematic review of clinical trials that examined the effectiveness of interventions on balance self-efficacy among individuals with stroke.
Summary of review:
Searches of the following databases were completed in December 2014: MEDLINE (1948–present), CINAHL (1982–present), EMBASE (1980–present) and PsycINFO (1987–present) for controlled clinical trials that measured balance self-efficacy in adults with stroke. Reference lists of selected articles were hand-searched to identify further relevant studies.
Two independent reviewers performed data extraction and assessed the methodological quality of the studies using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database Scale. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated.
A total of 19 trials involving 729 participants used balance self-efficacy as a secondary outcome. Study quality ranged from poor ( n = 3) to good ( n = 8). In the meta-analysis of 15 trials that used intensive physical activity interventions, a moderate beneficial effect on balance self-efficacy was observed immediately following the programs (SMD 0.44, 95% CI 0.11–0.77, P = 0.009). In the studies that included follow-up assessments, there was no difference between groups across retention periods (eight studies, SMD 0.32, 95% CI −0.17–0.80, P = 0.20). In the four studies that used motor imagery interventions, there was no between-group difference in change in balance self-efficacy (fixed effects SMD 0.68, 95% CI −0.33–1.69, P = 0.18).
Physical activity interventions appear to be effective in improving balance self-efficacy after stroke.