SAGES video acquisition framework—analysis of available OR recording technologies by the SAGES AI task force
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BACKGROUND: Surgical video recording provides the opportunity to acquire intraoperative data that can subsequently be used for a variety of quality improvement, research, and educational applications. Various recording devices are available for standard operating room camera systems. Some allow for collateral data acquisition including activities of the OR staff, kinematic measurements (motion of surgical instruments), and recording of the endoscopic video streams. Additional analysis through computer vision (CV), which allows software to understand and perform predictive tasks on images, can allow for automatic phase segmentation, instrument tracking, and derivative performance-geared metrics. With this survey, we summarize available surgical video acquisition technologies and associated performance analysis platforms. METHODS: In an effort promoted by the SAGES Artificial Intelligence Task Force, we surveyed the available video recording technology companies. Of thirteen companies approached, nine were interviewed, each over an hour-long video conference. A standard set of 17 questions was administered. Questions spanned from data acquisition capacity, quality, and synchronization of video with other data, availability of analytic tools, privacy, and access. RESULTS: Most platforms (89%) store video in full-HD (1080p) resolution at a frame rate of 30 fps. Most (67%) of available platforms store data in a Cloud-based databank as opposed to institutional hard drives. CV powered analysis is featured in some platforms: phase segmentation in 44% platforms, out of body blurring or tool tracking in 33%, and suture time in 11%. Kinematic data are provided by 22% and perfusion imaging in one device. CONCLUSION: Video acquisition platforms on the market allow for in depth performance analysis through manual and automated review. Most of these devices will be integrated in upcoming robotic surgical platforms. Platform analytic supplementation, including CV, may allow for more refined performance analysis to surgeons and trainees. Most current AI features are related to phase segmentation, instrument tracking, and video blurring.
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