The closest surrogate to hunter-gather activity is the sport of orienteering, which naturally and simultaneously combines high-intensity interval exercise with navigation. Although human cognition can be improved across the lifespan through exercise and cognitive training, interventions like orienteering may be especially effective because they resemble activities engaged in by prehistoric humans during evolution. The present study tested whether orienteering experts have better hippocampal-dependent cognitive function than active, non-orienteering controls. One-hundred and fifty-eight healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 87 years old with varying experience in orienteering (none, intermediate, advanced, elite) reported on their spatial processing, spatial memory and episodic memory using the Navigational Strategy Questionnaire and the Survey of Autobiographical Memory. Orienteering experts reported greater use of allocentric and egocentric spatial processing and better spatial memory than controls. In contrast, episodic memory was not associated with orienteering expertise. Notably, the significant effects of orienteering on spatial cognition remained even after controlling for age, sex, and physical activity, suggesting that orienteering may be an effective intervention to prevent age-related cognitive decline in spatial navigation and memory.