The enteric nervous system (ENS) is the intrinsic nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and regulates important GI functions, including motility, nutrient uptake, and immune response. The development of the ENS begins during early organogenesis and continues to develop once feeding begins, with ongoing plasticity into adulthood. There has been increasing recognition that the intestinal microbiota and ENS interact during critical periods, with implications for normal development and potential disease pathogenesis. In this review, we focus on insights from mouse and zebrafish model systems to compare and contrast how each model can serve in elucidating the bidirectional communication between the ENS and the microbiome. At the end of this review, we further outline implications for human disease and highlight research innovations that can lead the field forward.