Improving diagnostic precision, care and syndrome definitions using comprehensive next-generation sequencing for the inherited bone marrow failure syndromes
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BACKGROUND: Phenotypic overlap among the inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFSs) frequently limits the ability to establish a diagnosis based solely on clinical features. >70 IBMFS genes have been identified, which often renders genetic testing prolonged and costly. Since correct diagnosis, treatment and cancer surveillance often depend on identifying the mutated gene, strategies that enable timely genotyping are essential. METHODS: To overcome these challenges, we developed a next-generation sequencing assay to analyse a panel of 72 known IBMFS genes. Cases fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of an IBMFS but without identified causal genotypes were included. RESULTS: The assay was validated by detecting 52 variants previously found by Sanger sequencing. A total of 158 patients with unknown mutations were studied. Of 75 patients with known IBMFS categories (eg, Fanconi anaemia), 59% had causal mutations. Among 83 patients with unclassified IBMFSs, we found causal mutations and established the diagnosis in 18% of the patients. The assay detected mutant genes that had not previously been reported to be associated with the patient phenotypes. In other cases, the assay led to amendments of diagnoses. In 20% of genotype cases, the results indicated a cancer surveillance programme. CONCLUSIONS: The novel assay is efficient, accurate and has a major impact on patient care.
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