SWFT-Net: a deep learning framework for efficient fine-tuning spot weights towards adaptive proton therapy Journal Articles uri icon

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  • Abstract Objective. One critical task for adaptive proton therapy is how to perform spot weight re-tuning and reoptimize plan, both of which are time-consuming and labor intensive. We proposed a deep learning framework (SWFT-Net) to speed up such a task, a starting point for us to move towards online adaptive proton therapy. Approach. For a H&N patient case, a reference intensity modulated proton therapy plan was generated. For data augmentation, spot weights were modified to generate three datasets (DS10, DS30, DS50), corresponding to different levels of weight adjustment. For each dataset, the samples were split into the training and testing groups at a ratio of 8:2 (6400 for training, 1706 for testing). To ease the difficulty of machine learning, the residuals of dose maps and spot weights (i.e. difference relative to a reference) were used as inputs and outputs, respectively. Quantitative analyses were performed in terms of normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of spot weights, Gamma passing rate and dose difference within the PTV. Main results. The SWFT-Net is able to generate an adapted plan in less than a second with a NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3090 GPU. For the 1706 samples in the testing dataset, the NRMSE is 0.41% (DS10), 1.05% (DS30) and 2.04% (DS50), respectively. Cold/hot spots in the dose maps after adaptation are observed. The mean relative dose difference is 0.64% (DS10), 0.92% (DS30) and 0.88% (DS50), respectively. For all three datasets, the mean Gamma passing rate is consistently over 95% for both 1 mm/1% and 3 mm/3% settings. Significance. The proposed SWFT-Net is a promising tool to help realize adaptive proton therapy. It can be used as an alternative tool to other spot fine-tuning optimization algorithms, likely demonstrating superior performance in terms of speed, accuracy, robustness and minimum human interaction. This study lays down a foundation for us to move further incorporating other factors such as daily anatomical changes and propagated PTVs, and develop a truly online adaptive workflow in proton therapy.


  • Zhang, Guoliang
  • Zhou, Long
  • Han, Zeng
  • Zhao, Wei
  • Peng, Hao

publication date

  • December 21, 2022