Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SC) play an important role in muscle adaptation. In untrained individuals, SC content and activation status have been observed to increase in response to a single bout of exercise. Muscle fiber characteristics change considerably when resistance exercise is performed chronically, but whether training status affects the activity of SC in response to a single bout of exercise remains unknown. We examined the changes in SC content and activation status following a single bout of resistance exercise, before and following a 16-wk progressive resistance training (RT) program in 14 young (25 ± 3 yr) men. Before and after RT, percutaneous biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before a single bout of resistance exercise and after 24 and 72 h of postexercise recovery. Muscle fiber size, capillarization, and SC response were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following RT, there was a greater activation of SC after 24 h in response to a single bout of resistance exercise (Pre, 1.4 ± 0.3; 24 h, 3.1 ± 0.3 Pax7+/MyoD+ cells per 100 fibers) compared with before RT (Pre, 1.4 ± 0.3; 24 h, 2.2 ± 0.3 Pax7+/MyoD+ cells per 100 fibers, P < 0.05); no difference was observed 72 h postexercise. Following 16 wk of RT, MyoD mRNA expression increased from basal to 24 h after the single bout of exercise ( P < 0.05); this change was not observed before training. Individual capillary-to-fiber ratio (C/F i) increased in both type I (1.8 ± 0.3 to 2.0 ± 0.3 C/F i, P < 0.05) and type II (1.7 ± 0.3 to 2.2 ± 0.3 C/F i, P < 0.05) fibers in response to RT. After RT, enhanced activation of SC in response to resistance exercise is accompanied by increases in muscle fiber capillarization.