Inhibitor screening of pharmacological chaperones for lysosomal β-glucocerebrosidase by capillary electrophoresis
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Pharmacological chaperones (PCs) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of lysosomal storage disorders based on enhanced stabilization and trafficking of mutant protein upon orthosteric and/or allosteric binding. Herein, we introduce a simple yet reliable enzyme assay using capillary electrophoresis (CE) for inhibitor screening of PCs that target the lysosomal enzyme, β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). The rate of GCase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate, 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D: -glucopyranoside was performed using different classes of PCs by CE with UV detection under standardized conditions. The pH and surfactant dependence of inhibitor binding on recombinant GCase activity was also examined. Enzyme inhibition studies were investigated for five putative PCs including isofagomine (IFG), ambroxol, bromhexine, diltiazem, and fluphenazine. IFG was confirmed as a potent competitive inhibitor of recombinant GCase with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 47.5 ± 0.1 and 4.6 ± 1.4 nM at pH 5.2 and pH 7.2, respectively. In contrast, the four other non-carbohydrate amines were demonstrated to function as mixed-type inhibitors with high micromolar activity at neutral pH relative to acidic pH conditions reflective of the lysosome. CE offers a convenient platform for characterization of PCs as a way to accelerate the clinical translation of previously approved drugs for oral treatment of rare genetic disorders, such as Gaucher disease.
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