Determining the optimal antibiotic regimen for chorioamnionitis: A systematic review and meta‐analysis Journal Articles uri icon

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  • AbstractIntroductionTo evaluate the effect of antibiotic regimens for chorioamnionitis on maternal and neonatal outcomes.Material and methodsWe conducted a systematic review, wherein we searched six bibliographic databases until June 2020 and included randomized clinical trials describing antibiotic regimens for treating chorioamnionitis. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool V2.0. Random‐effects meta‐analysis was performed and results were presented as risk ratio (RR) and mean differences (MD) with 95% CI.ResultsFourteen trials at low‐to‐high risk of bias were included. Three trials (n = 244), comparing different intrapartum antibiotic regimens, showed no difference in outcomes except for lower composite maternal morbidity (endometritis, pneumonia, sepsis, blood transfusion, and ileus) with ampicillin/sulbactam vs ampicillin/gentamicin in one study (0/43 vs 6/49, P = .03). Three trials (n = 295) comparing different doses of intrapartum antibiotics showed no differences in maternal and neonatal outcomes, although one study showed a shorter duration of antibiotic treatment in the experimental arm (4 mg/kg gentamicin q24h + 1200 mg clindamycin q12h) vs conventional arm (1.33 mg/kg gentamicin + 800 mg clindamycin q8h) (48.0 ± 36 hours vs 55.2 ± 48 hours, P = .04). Four trials (n = 484) comparing postpartum antibiotics vs no antibiotics showed no difference in outcomes except for a shorter hospital stay (two studies, MD −7.90 hours, 95% CI −13.52 to −2.27 hours). Three trials (n = 447) comparing single vs multiple doses of postpartum antibiotics showed shorter hospital stay [MD −19.14 hours, 95% CI −29.88 to −8.41 hours), but no differences in treatment failure (RR 1.73, 95% CI 0.69‐4.30) or total antibiotic dose (MD −9.24, 95% CI −19.49 to 1.01). One trial (n = 48) comparing intrapartum vs postpartum initiation of treatment found benefits to intrapartum (vs postpartum) initiation of antibiotics, in terms of postpartum maternal hospital stay (MD −24 hours, 95% CI −45.56 to −1.44 hours), neonatal hospital stay (MD −45.6 hours, −93.84 to −11.76 hours), and neonatal pneumonia or sepsis (RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.00‐0.95).ConclusionsUpon diagnosis of chorioamnionitis, there is limited evidence to recommend the prompt initiation of intrapartum antibiotics, and to consider a single dose of postpartum antibiotics over multiple doses or no treatment. Well‐designed trials using standard definitions of chorioamnionitis, outcome measures, and newer antibiotics are required to inform clinical practice with regard to the preferred antibiotic regimen, dose, and duration to optimize maternal and neonatal outcomes.


  • Alrowaily, Nouf
  • D'Souza, Rohan
  • Dong, Susan
  • Chowdhury, Soneya
  • Ryu, Michelle
  • Ronzoni, Stefania

publication date

  • May 2021