Effects of resistance training on bone mineral content and density in adolescent females
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Postmenarcheal adolescent girls performed resistance training (RT) for 26 weeks, which consisted of 4 sets of 13 exercises of varying and progressive intensity performed 3 times weekly on hydraulic resistance machines. Bone mineral was assessed by dual photon absorptiometry. Resistance training resulted in significant increases (pre-post) in biceps curl (21.4%), triceps press (21.5%), knee extension (25.1%), knee flexion (52.8%), and squat press (21.5%) strength. There were no significant differences between RT and control (C) groups initially, and no significant effects of training (pre-post) for total body (TB) or lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD). The largest increases in LS bone mineral occurred during the first 13 weeks, and although not significant, the increases in LS BMC (g) (3.9 vs. 5.9%), LS BMC (g.cm-1) (2.6 vs. 5.9%), LS areal BMD (g.cm-2) (1.48 vs. 4.75%), and LS bone mineral apparent density (BMAD, g.cm-3) (0.47 vs. 4.13%) were greater in the RT compared with the C group during this period. In conclusion, resistance training resulted in a trend towards a transient increase in LS bone mineral during the first 13 weeks, but despite significant strength gains, there were no significant changes in TB or LS bone mineral after 26 weeks of training.
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