Variance and Invariance in Expert and Novice Triple Junipers
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The purpose of this study was to examine relative timing, relative distance, and effector independence characteristics of the triple jump. We videotaped expert and novice triple jumpers using standing and running starts. On some trials, the triple jumpers were required to take off from their nondominant leg. Gentner's (1987) interaction test was used to assess the proportional duration model in describing the timing of the component submovements. For both experts and novices, the proportional durations varied with the type of start. For experts, the relative timing of the jump components was independent of the take-off leg. The findings were mixed for the novices. Similar results were obtained when relative distance was examined. These results are discussed with respect to constructs related to variability in skilled performance.
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