The utilization of visual information in the control of reciprocal aiming movements
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Two experiments examined on-line processing during the execution of reciprocal aiming movements. In Experiment 1, participants used a stylus to make movements between two targets of equal size. Three vision conditions were used: full vision, vision during flight and vision only on contact with the target. Participants had significantly longer movement times and spent more time in contact with the targets when vision was available only on contact with the target. Additionally, the proportion of time to peak velocity revealed that movement trajectories became more symmetric when vision was not available during flight. The data indicate that participants used vision not only to 'home-in' on the current target, but also to prepare subsequent movements. In Experiment 2, liquid crystal goggles provided a single visual sample every 40 ms of a 500 ms duty cycle. Of interest was how participants timed their reciprocal aiming to take advantage of these brief visual samples. Although across participants no particular portion of the movement trajectory was favored, individual performers did time their movements consistently with the onset and offset of vision. Once again, performance and kinematic data indicated that movement segments were not independent of each other.
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