Removing race from the CKD-EPI equation and its impact on prognosis in a predominantly White European population Journal Articles uri icon

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  • ABSTRACT Background While American nephrology societies recommend using the 2021 Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equation without a Black race coefficient, it is unknown how this would impact disease distribution, prognosis and kidney failure risk prediction in predominantly White non-US populations. Methods We studied 1.6 million Stockholm adults with serum/plasma creatinine measurements between 2007 and 2019. We calculated changes in eGFR and reclassification across KDIGO GFR categories when changing from the 2009 to 2021 CKD-EPI equation; estimated associations between eGFR and the clinical outcomes kidney failure with replacement therapy (KFRT), (cardiovascular) mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events using Cox regression; and investigated prognostic accuracy (discrimination and calibration) of both equations within the Kidney Failure Risk Equation. Results Compared with the 2009 equation, the 2021 equation yielded a higher eGFR by a median [interquartile range (IQR)] of 3.9 (2.9–4.8) mL/min/1.73 m2, which was larger at older age and for men. Consequently, 9.9% of the total population and 36.2% of the population with CKD G3a–G5 was reclassified to a higher eGFR category. Reclassified individuals exhibited a lower risk of KFRT, but higher risks of all-cause/cardiovascular death and major adverse cardiovascular events, compared with non-reclassified participants of similar eGFR. eGFR by both equations strongly predicted study outcomes, with equal discrimination and calibration for the Kidney Failure Risk Equation. Conclusions Implementing the 2021 CKD-EPI equation in predominantly White European populations would raise eGFR by a modest amount (larger at older age and in men) and shift a major proportion of CKD patients to a higher eGFR category. eGFR by both equations strongly predicted outcomes.


  • Fu, Edouard L
  • Coresh, Josef
  • Grams, Morgan E
  • Clase, Catherine
  • Elinder, Carl-Gustaf
  • Paik, Julie
  • Ramspek, Chava L
  • Inker, Lesley A
  • Levey, Andrew S
  • Dekker, Friedo W
  • Carrero, Juan J

publication date

  • January 23, 2023