Multi-Objective Optimization of Sustainable Concrete Containing Fly Ash Based on Environmental and Mechanical Considerations Journal Articles uri icon

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  • Infrastructure design, construction and development experts are making frantic efforts to overcome the overbearing effects of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the continued dependence on the utilization of conventional cement as a construction material on our planet. The amount of CO2 emitted during cement production, transportation to construction sites, and handling during construction activities to produce concrete is alarming. The present research work is focused on proposing intelligent models for fly ash (FA)-based concrete comprising cement, fine and coarse aggregates (FAg and CAg), FA, and water as mix constituents based on environmental impact (P) considerations in an attempt to foster healthier and greener concrete production and aid the environment. FA as a construction material is discharged as a waste material from power plants in large amounts across the world. Its utilization as a supplementary cement ensures a sustainable waste management mechanism and is beneficial for the environment too; hence, this research work is a multi-objective exercise. Intelligent models are proposed for multiple concrete mixes utilizing FA as a replacement for cement to predict 28-day concrete compressive strength and life cycle assessment (LCA) for cement with FA. The data collected show that the concrete mixes with a higher amount of FA had a lesser impact on the environment, while the environmental impact was higher for those mixes with a higher amount of cement. The models which utilized the learning abilities of ANN (-BP, -GRG, and -GA), GP and EPR showed great speed and robustness with R2 performance indices (SSE) of 0.986 (5.1), 0.983 (5.8), 0.974 (7.0), 0.78 (19.1), and 0.957 (10.1) for Fc, respectively, and 0.994 (2.2), 0.999 (0.8), 0.999 (1.0), 0.999 (0.8), and 1.00 (0.4) for P, respectively. Overall, this shows that ANN-BP outclassed the rest in performance in predicting Fc, while EPR outclassed the others in predicting P. Relative importance analyses conducted on the constituent materials showed that FA had relatively good importance in the concrete mixes. However, closed-form model equations are proposed to optimize the amount of FA and cement that will provide the needed strength levels without jeopardizing the health of the environment.


  • Onyelowe, Kennedy C
  • Kontoni, Denise-Penelope N
  • Ebid, Ahmed M
  • Dabbaghi, Farshad
  • Soleymani, Atefeh
  • Jahangir, Hashem
  • Nehdi, Moncef

publication date

  • July 2022