In this study, we employed single-leg submaximal cycle training, conducted over a 10-wk period, to investigate adaptations in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-regulatory proteins and processes of the vastus lateralis. During the final weeks, the untrained volunteers (age 21.4 ± 0.3 yr; means ± SE, n = 10) were exercising 5 times/wk and for 60 min/session. Analyses were performed on tissue extracted by needle biopsy ∼4 days after the last training session. Compared with the control leg, the trained leg displayed a 19% reduction ( P < 0.05) in homogenate maximal Ca2+-ATPase activity (192 ± 11 vs. 156 ± 18 μmol · g protein−1 · min−1), a 4.3% increase ( P < 0.05) in pCa50, defined as the Ca2+ concentration at half-maximal activity (6.01 ± 0.05 vs. 6.26 ± 0.07), and no change in the Hill coefficient (1.75 ± 0.15 vs. 1.76 ± 0.21). Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibodies (7E6 and A52) revealed a 13% lower ( P < 0.05) sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) 1 in trained vs. control in the absence of differences in SERCA2a. Training also resulted in an 18% lower ( P < 0.05) SR Ca2+ uptake and a 26% lower ( P < 0.05) Ca2+ release. It is concluded that a downregulation in SR Ca2+ cycling in vastus lateralis occurs with aerobic-based training, which at least in the case of Ca2+ uptake can be explained by reduction in Ca2+-ATPase activity and SERCA1 protein levels.