Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Endoprosthetic Reconstruction for Lower Extremity Sarcomas: Does Timing Impact Complication Rates?
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Sarcoma patients undergoing surgical resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction often receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). The objective of the current study was to determine if the timing of NACT impacts the rates of surgical site infections (SSI) and reoperations.
This study was a secondary analysis of the recently published Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumor Surgery trial. Patients who underwent NACT, tumor resection, and endoprosthetic reconstruction for a bone or soft tissue sarcoma were included. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were created to evaluate if NACT timing was predictive of SSI or reoperations.
Overall, 216 patients from 39 clinical sites were included in the analysis. The most common diagnosis was osteosarcoma (75%), followed by Ewing's sarcoma (16%). The median time from completion of NACT to surgery was 24 days (interquartile range 15-42 days). Eighty-five (39%) patients underwent surgery within 3 weeks of completing NACT, 78 (36%) underwent surgery 3-6 weeks after completing NACT, and 53 (22%) patients underwent surgery > 6 weeks after completion of NACT. The timing of NACT did not impact SSI rates or reoperation rates. Longer operative time was an independent predictor of both SSI [hazard ratio (HR) per hour of 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.40; p = 0.002] and reoperation rates (HR of 1.15 per hour, 95% CI 1.03-1.28; p = 0.014).
The timing of surgery following NACT varied considerably. Chemotherapy timing did not impact SSI or reoperations in patients undergoing surgical resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction in sarcoma patients.