Toxicokinetics of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) in the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis (H�bner)
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2,4-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA), the major hydroxamic acid present in corn, and its tritiated derivative, were prepared synthetically for use in the determination of the toxicokinetics of this insect deterrent in the European corn borer (ECB),Ostrinia nubilalis. In growth studies with DIMBOA (0, 0.05, 0.2, and 0.5 mg/g diet), the mean time to pupation and adult emergence were significantly lengthened by an increase in concentration. Pupal and adult weights, for both female and male, decreased with an increase in concentration. Increased larval and pupal mortality occurred at the highest concentration of DIMBOA. DIMBOA, at concentrations of 0.2 and 0.5 mg/g diet, resulted in a decrease in the number of egg masses produced per female, and at 0.5 mg/g diet, in a decrease in the number of eggs per egg mass. Larvae fed from the neonate stage on a diet containing 0.2 mg [(3)H]- + [(1)H]DIMBOA/g diet showed an increase in the content of label from fourth to fifth instar, but levels declined at pupation and emergence. A large amount of the labeled compounds was excreted by the insect in the pupal case. In dose-related studies, both uptake and excretion increased with an increase in concentration of DIMBOA (0.05, 0.2, 0.4 mg/g diet), while a body burden (concentration in the tissues/concentration in the frass) of approximately 0.25 was maintained for all concentrations. At the highest dose of DIMBOA (0.4 mg/g), the ECB increased consumption, possibly to compensate for the toxic effects of the compound. In topical application studies, elimination of the labeled compound in the frass was rapid, reaching 65% by 4 hr and 88% by 48 hr. Accumulation of label in tissues other than hemolymph was low. The results show that the ECB does possess adaptive mechanisms to deal with the effects of this host-derived compound.
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