CuSb2O6 crystallizes in a monoclinically distorted trirutile structure. Atomic positions were determined by profile refinement of neutron powder diffraction data. An important feature of the structure is the presence of nearly square planar Cu2+ layers. The Cu-O-Cu superexchange pathways are such that short-range interactions are approximately one-dimensional. Evidence for short-range order is found from a susceptibility maximum at 60 K. Long-range order occurs near 25 K and an additional, first-order transition occurs at 8 K.