The corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors of 20#, X60, and X80 pipeline steels in a near-neutral pH environment were investigated by means of electrochemical measurement, immersion test, and interrupted slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test. The propensity for SCC, as indicated by the stress threshold value for crack initiation, was found to be dependent on the type of steel microstructure. Cracks were initiated in the high-strength steel X80 at a stress less than its yield strength, whereas in the other lower-grade steels, the initiation of cracks occurred after the yielding point. The threshold stress of SCC initiation in the near-neutral pH environment for 20#, X60, and X80 steels were 130.64% σys, 106.79% σys, and 86.92% σys, respectively. The SCC of 20# and X60 were characterized by the formation of transgranular and intergranular cracks, while X80 steel was only by transgranular cracking. The occurrence of corrosion had a great effect on crack initiation and the growth at the later stage. The latter involved hydrogen effects. A correlation between SCC sensitivity and the yield strength of the steel has been identified.