Dating and Context of Three Middle Stone Age Sites with Bone Points in the Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire Academic Article uri icon

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  • The extent to which the earliest anatomically modern humans in Africa exhibited behavioral and cognitive traits typical of Homo sapiens sapiens is controversial. In eastern Zaire, archaeological sites with bone points have yielded dates older than 89(-15)+22 thousand years ago by several techniques. These include electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, uranium series, and amino acid racemization. Faunal and stratigraphic data are consistent with this age.


  • Brooks, Alison S
  • Helgren, David M
  • Cramer, Jon S
  • Franklin, Alan
  • Hornyak, William
  • Keating, Jody M
  • Klein, Richard G
  • Rink, William J
  • Schwarcz, Henry
  • Smith, JN Leith
  • Stewart, Kathlyn
  • Todd, Nancy E
  • Verniers, Jacques
  • Yellen, John E

publication date

  • April 28, 1995