For individuals who face barriers to care assessment, there is a need for remote administration or self-administration of physical performance measures that assess mobility to determine current functional status and to monitor and predict future changes in functional status. The primary purpose of this review is to evaluate the available measurement properties of scores for remotely or self-administered lower extremity mobility performance measures in adults. This review also outlines the test procedures and population suitability of these measures.
Data sources were Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, EBSCOhost CINAHL, Ovid AMED, and Cochrane CENTRAL—which were searched from inception to January 26, 2021—and the reference lists of relevant studies. Two individuals independently screened studies that assessed at least 1 prespecified measurement property of scores for a remote and/or self-administered lower extremity physical performance measure assessing mobility in an adult population. Two individuals independently extracted data on study characteristics, measurement properties, feasibility, and interpretability using piloted extraction forms. The COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) Risk of Bias tool was used to assess methodological quality. Data were qualitatively summarized, and results were compared against COSMIN’s criteria for good measurement properties. Level of evidence was determined using COSMIN’s modified GRADE approach.
Fourteen studies detailing 19 outcome measures were included. Many studies displayed “sufficient” measurement properties based on COSMIN’s criteria; however, risk of bias for most of the included studies was rated adequate or doubtful.
Clinicians and researchers can consider the measurement properties of scores and feasibility of different approaches presented in this review when determining how to assess or monitor mobility in adult populations.
Assessing mobility via remote or self-administered physical performance measures in adult populations appears to be feasible using a variety of methods including simple tools (chair, stopwatch), videoconferencing, and smartphone applications. This strategy may be particularly valuable for self-management of chronic conditions and decreasing barriers to accessing care.