Obesity in late adolescence and incident type 1 diabetes in young adulthood
Additional Document Info
Studies in children have reported an association between increased BMI and risk for developing type 1 diabetes, but evidence in late adolescence is limited. We studied the association between BMI in late adolescence and incident type 1 diabetes in young adulthood.
All Israeli adolescents, ages 16-19 years, undergoing medical evaluation in preparation for mandatory military conscription between January 1996 and December 2016 were included for analysis unless they had a history of dysglycaemia. Data were linked with information about adult onset of type 1 diabetes in the Israeli National Diabetes Registry. Weight and height were measured at study entry. Cox proportional models were applied, with BMI being analysed both as a categorical and as a continuous variable.
There were 777 incident cases of type 1 diabetes during 15,819,750 person-years (mean age at diagnosis 25.2±3.9 years). BMI was associated with incident type 1 diabetes. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex and sociodemographic variables, the HRs for type 1 diabetes were 1.05 (95% CI 0.87, 1.27) for the 50th-74th BMI percentiles, 1.41 (95% CI 1.11, 1.78) for the 75th-84th BMI percentiles, 1.54 (95% CI 1.23, 1.94) for adolescents who were overweight (85th-94th percentiles), and 2.05 (95% CI 1.58, 2.66) for adolescents with obesity (≥95th percentile) (reference group: 5th-49th BMI percentiles). One increment in BMI SD was associated with a 25% greater risk for incidence of type 1 diabetes (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.17, 1.32).
Excessively high BMI in otherwise healthy adolescents is associated with increased risk for incident type 1 diabetes in early adulthood.