- Barbara Riegel's theory of self-care has been used to create a Self-Care of Heart Failure Index, which has been adapted by researchers into a Self-Care of Diabetes Inventory (SCODI) for individuals living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The SCODI measures how an individual is currently caring for their T2DM to identify areas in need of health-care provider support. The SCODI tool appears to have widespread international dissemination, but it is unknown how the SCODI or Riegel's concept of self-care are being utilized in the Canadian or American diabetes literature. In this critical review we seek to determine how the concept of self-care, including Riegel's concept of self-care, and the SCODI are being utilized in the Canadian and American diabetes literature for adults with T2DM. Critical review methodology was used to identify publications that had an adult T2DM population and self-care language. All included studies (n=11) were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement and Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist to determine methodologic quality. Included studies were of medium to high quality and often did not define or measure self-care. When studies measured self-care, they utilized the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) more often (46%) than the SCODI (18%). Future research should collaborate with the international community to set a clear definition of self-care and create a theory-driven approach to self-care for T2DM as well as consider understanding the differences and similarities between the SDSCA and SCODI tools.