Identifying persons who are least willing to receive a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is critical for increasing uptake via targeted outreach. We conducted a survey of 23,819 Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging participants from September 29 to December 29, 2020, to assess factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination willingness and reasons for willingness or lack thereof. Among adults aged 50–96 years, 84.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 83.7, 84.6) were very or somewhat willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine; 15.9% (95% CI: 15.4, 16.3) were uncertain or very or somewhat unwilling. Based on logistic regression, those who were younger, female, had lower education and income, were non-White, and lived in a rural area were less willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. After controlling for these factors, recent receipt of influenza vaccine (adjusted odds ratio = 14.3, 95% CI: 12.5, 16.2) or planning to receive influenza vaccine (adjusted odds ratio = 10.5, 95% CI: 9.5, 11.6), as compared with no receipt or planning, was most strongly associated with COVID-19 vaccination willingness. Willingness was also associated with believing one had never been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) and experiencing negative pandemic consequences. Safety concerns were most common among those unwilling. Our comprehensive assessment of COVID-19 vaccination willingness among older adults in Canada, a prioritized group for vaccination due to their risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes, provides a road map for conducting outreach to increase uptake, which is urgently needed.