Matrix metalloproteinase 1, 3 and 12 polymorphisms and esophageal adenocarcinoma risk and prognosis
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The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family degrade extracellular matrix and mediate pathways including apoptosis, angiogenesis and immunity. We studied the association between four MMP polymorphisms within three MMP genes and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) risk and prognosis. A total of 313 EA cases and 455 age and gender frequency-matched controls were genotyped for MMP1 1G/2G, MMP3 6A/5A, MMP12 -82A/G and MMP12 1082A/G. The association between individual MMP polymorphisms and EA risk was evaluated using regression models and adjusted for age, gender, adult body mass index and smoking status. Haplotype analysis was performed to investigate the combined effect of all four linked MMP polymorphisms and EA risk. The MMP1 and MMP3 polymorphisms were associated with increased EA risk: MMP1 1G/2G and 2G/2G had adjusted odds ratios of 1.46 [95% confidence interval 1.0-2.1; P = 0.04] and adjusted odds ratio 1.83 (1.2-2.8; P = 0.005), respectively, whereas MMP3 6A/5A had adjusted odds ratio 1.40 (95% confidence interval 1.0-2.1; P = 0.09) and MMP3 5A/5A had 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.0-2.5; P = 0.03). Two MMP haplotypes [MMP1-MMP3-MMP12 (-82) 2G-5A-A (adjusted odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.8; P = 0.03) and 2G-5A-G (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.6; P = 0.01)] were also associated with increased EA risk. The relationship between BE cases with the same set of controls was similar. No association was identified between the MMP polymorphisms and overall survival or progression free survival of patients with EA. MMP1, MMP3 and possibly MMP12 -82A/G polymorphisms and their haplotypes are associated with increased EA risk.
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