Individualized treatment of preterm premature rupture of membranes to prolong the latency period, reduce the rate of preterm birth, and improve neonatal outcomes Journal Articles uri icon

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  • BACKGROUND: Preterm premature rupture of membranes complicates approximately 3% of pregnancies. Currently, in the absence of chorioamnionitis or placental abruption, expectant management, including antenatal steroids for lung maturation and prophylactic antibiotic treatment, is recommended. The benefits of individualized management have not been adequately explored. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the impact of 2 different management strategies of preterm premature rupture of membranes in 2 tertiary obstetrical centers on latency of >7 days, latency to birth, chorioamnionitis, funisitis, and short-term adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter retrospective study of women with singleton pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes from 23 0/7 to 33 6/7 weeks of gestation between 2014 and 2018 and undelivered within 24 hours after hospital admission managed at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Canada (standard management group), and BCNatal (Hospital Clínic of Barcelona and Hospital Sant Joan de Déu Barcelona), Barcelona, Spain (individualized management group), following local protocols. The standard management group received similar management for all patients, which included a standard antibiotic regimen and routine maternal and fetal surveillance, whereas the individualized management group received personalized management on the basis of amniocentesis at hospital admission (if possible), to rule out microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and targeted treatment. The exclusion criteria were cervical dilatation >2 cm, active labor, contraindications to expectant management (acute chorioamnionitis, placental abruption, or abnormal fetal tracing), and major fetal anomalies. The primary outcome was latency of >7 days, and the secondary outcomes included latency to birth, chorioamnionitis, and short-term adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Statistical comparisons between groups were conducted with propensity score weighting. RESULTS: A total of 513 pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes were included in this study: 324 patients received standard management, and 189 patients received individualized management, wherein amniocentesis was performed in 112 cases (59.3%). After propensity score weighting, patients receiving individualized management had a higher latency of >7 days (76.0% vs 41.6%; P<.001) and latency to birth (18.1±14.7 vs 9.7±9.7 days; P<.001). Although a higher rate of clinical chorioamnionitis was suspected in the individualized management group than the standard group (34.5% vs 22.0%; P<.01), there was no difference between the groups in terms of histologic chorioamnionitis (67.2% vs 73.4%; P=.16), funisitis (57.6% vs 58.1%; P=.92), or composite infectious maternal outcomes (9.1% vs 7.9%; P=.64). Prolonged latency in the individualized management group was associated with a significant reduction of preterm birth at <32 weeks of gestation (72.1% vs 90.5%; P<.001), neonatal intensive care unit admission (75.6% vs 83.0%; P=.046), and neonatal respiratory support at 28 days of life (16.1% vs 26.1%; P<.01) compared with that in the standard management group. Moreover, prolonged latency was not associated with neonatal severe morbidity at discharge (survival without severe morbidity, 80.4% vs 73.5%; P=.09). CONCLUSION: Individualized management of preterm premature rupture of membranes may prolong pregnancy and reduce preterm birth at <32 weeks of gestation, the need for neonatal support, and neonatal intensive care unit admissions, without an increase in histologic chorioamnionitis, funisitis, neonatal infection-related morbidity, and short-term adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.


  • D'Souza, Rohan
  • Ronzoni, Stefania
  • Cobo, Teresa
  • D’Souza, Rohan
  • Asztalos, Elizabeth
  • O’Rinn, Susan E
  • Cao, Xingshan
  • Herranz, Ana
  • Melamed, Nir
  • Ferrero, Silvia
  • Barrett, Jon
  • Aldecoa, Victoria
  • Palacio, Montse

publication date

  • August 2022