Examining the trajectory and predictors of post-concussion sleep quality in children and adolescents
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OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to 1) determine if post-concussion sleep quality of children and adolescents differed from healthy sleep estimates; 2) describe the trajectory of parameters of sleep quality; 3) determine factors that predict sleep quality outcomes; and 4) compare sleep parameter outcomes between asymptomatic and symptomatic participants at 4 weeks post-concussion. METHODS: Nightly actigraphy estimates of sleep in 79 children and adolescents were measured throughout 4 weeks post-concussion. Total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), wake after sleep onset (WASO), number of arousals (NOA), and average arousal length (AAL) were measured. RESULTS: Child and adolescent participants experienced significantly poorer SE and longer WASO duration throughout 4 weeks of recovery and adolescents experienced significantly longer TST. SE significantly improved with time post-injury (p = .047). Older age was associated with longer TST (p = .003) and female sex was associated with longer WASO (p = .025) and AAL duration (p = .044). Week 4 sleep parameter outcomes were not significantly different between asymptomatic and symptomatic participants. CONCLUSIONS: The sleep quality of youth is adversely affected by concussion, particularly in females. Sleep quality appears to improve with time but may require more than 4 weeks to return to normal.
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