Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Patients With Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes
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ImportanceThe prevalence of pediatric type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing globally. Girls with T2D are at risk of developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the prevalence of PCOS among girls with T2D is unknown.
ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence of PCOS in girls with T2D and to assess the association of obesity and race with this prevalence.
Data sourcesIn this systematic review and meta-analysis, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, and the gray literature were searched from inception to April 4, 2021.
Study selectionTwo reviewers independently screened for studies with observational study design that recruited 10 or more participants and reported the prevalence of PCOS in girls with T2D.
Data extraction and synthesisRisk of bias was evaluated using a validated tool, and level of evidence was assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed. This study follows the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) reporting guideline.
Main outcomes and measuresThe main outcome of this systematic review was the prevalence of PCOS in girls with T2D. Secondary outcomes included assessing the associations of obesity and race with PCOS prevalence.
ResultsOf 722 screened studies, 6 studies involving 470 girls with T2D (mean age at diagnosis, 12.9-16.1 years) met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence (weighted percentage) of PCOS was 19.58% (95% CI, 12.02%-27.14%; I2 = 74%; P = .002). Heterogeneity was moderate to high; however, it was significantly reduced after excluding studies that did not report PCOS diagnostic criteria, leading to a calculated prevalence (weighted percentage) of 24.04% (95% CI, 15.07%-33.01%; I2 = 0%; P = .92). Associations with obesity and race could not be determined because of data paucity.
Conclusions and relevanceIn this meta-analysis, approximately 1 in 5 girls with T2D had PCOS, but the results of this meta-analysis should be considered with caution because studies including the larger numbers of girls did not report the criteria used to diagnose PCOS, which is a challenge during adolescence. The associations of obesity and race with PCOS prevalence among girls with T2D need further evaluation to help define at-risk subgroups and implement early assessment and treatment strategies to improve management of this T2D-related comorbidity.
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