Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Patients With Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes Journal Articles uri icon

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  • IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of pediatric type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing globally. Girls with T2D are at risk of developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the prevalence of PCOS among girls with T2D is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of PCOS in girls with T2D and to assess the association of obesity and race with this prevalence. DATA SOURCES: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, and the gray literature were searched from inception to April 4, 2021. STUDY SELECTION: Two reviewers independently screened for studies with observational study design that recruited 10 or more participants and reported the prevalence of PCOS in girls with T2D. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Risk of bias was evaluated using a validated tool, and level of evidence was assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed. This study follows the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) reporting guideline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The main outcome of this systematic review was the prevalence of PCOS in girls with T2D. Secondary outcomes included assessing the associations of obesity and race with PCOS prevalence. RESULTS: Of 722 screened studies, 6 studies involving 470 girls with T2D (mean age at diagnosis, 12.9-16.1 years) met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence (weighted percentage) of PCOS was 19.58% (95% CI, 12.02%-27.14%; I2 = 74%; P = .002). Heterogeneity was moderate to high; however, it was significantly reduced after excluding studies that did not report PCOS diagnostic criteria, leading to a calculated prevalence (weighted percentage) of 24.04% (95% CI, 15.07%-33.01%; I2 = 0%; P = .92). Associations with obesity and race could not be determined because of data paucity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this meta-analysis, approximately 1 in 5 girls with T2D had PCOS, but the results of this meta-analysis should be considered with caution because studies including the larger numbers of girls did not report the criteria used to diagnose PCOS, which is a challenge during adolescence. The associations of obesity and race with PCOS prevalence among girls with T2D need further evaluation to help define at-risk subgroups and implement early assessment and treatment strategies to improve management of this T2D-related comorbidity.


  • Cioana, Milena
  • Deng, Jiawen
  • Nadarajah, Ajantha
  • Hou, Maggie
  • Qiu, Yuan
  • Chen, Sondra Song Jie
  • Rivas, Angelica
  • Banfield, Laura
  • Alfaraidi, Haifa
  • Alotaibi, Ahlam
  • Thabane, Lehana
  • Samaan, Constantine

publication date

  • February 1, 2022