Beyond the revised cardiac risk index: Validation of the hospital frailty risk score in non-cardiac surgery Journal Articles uri icon

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  • Frailty is an established risk factor for adverse outcomes following non-cardiac surgery. The Hospital Frailty Risk Score (HFRS) is a recently described frailty assessment tool that harnesses administrative data and is composed of 109 International Classification of Disease variables. We aimed to examine the incremental prognostic utility of the HFRS in a generalizable surgical population. Using linked administrative databases, a retrospective cohort of patients admitted for non-cardiac surgery between October 1st, 2008 and September 30th, 2019 in Alberta, Canada was created. Our primary outcome was a composite of death, myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest at 30-days. Multivariable logistic regression was undertaken to assess the impact of HFRS on outcomes after adjusting for age, sex, components of the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) and peri-operative biomarkers. The final cohort consisted of 712,808 non-cardiac surgeries, of which 55·1% were female and the average age was 53·4 +/- 22·4 years. Using the HFRS, 86.3% were considered low risk, 10·7% were considered intermediate risk and 3·1% were considered high risk for frailty. Intermediate and high HFRS scores were associated with increased risk of the primary outcome with an adjusted odds ratio of 1·61 (95% CI 1·50–1.74) and 1·55 (95% CI 1·38–1·73). Intermediate and high HFRS were also associated with increased adjusted odds of prolonged hospital stay, in-hospital mortality, and 1-year mortality. The HFRS is a minimally onerous frailty assessment tool that can complement perioperative risk stratification in identifying patients at high risk of short- and long-term adverse events.


  • Gouda, Pishoy
  • Wang, Xiaoming
  • Youngson, Erik
  • McGillion, Michael
  • Mamas, Mamas A
  • Graham, Michelle M

publication date

  • 2022