This review highlights the differential contributions of multiple neurochemical systems to temperament traits related and those that are unrelated to emotionality, even though these systems have a significant overlap. The difference in neurochemical biomarkers of these traits is analysed from the perspective of the neurochemical model, Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) that uses multi-marker and constructivism principles. Special attention is given to a differential contribution of hypothalamic–pituitary hormones and opioid neuropeptides implicated in both emotional and non-emotional regulation. The review highlights the role of the mu-opioid receptor system in dispositional emotional valence and the role of the kappa-opioid system in dispositional perceptual and behavioural alertness. These opioid receptor (OR) systems, microbiota and cytokines are produced in three neuroanatomically distinct complexes in the brain and the body, which all together integrate dispositional emotionality. In contrast, hormones could be seen as neurochemical biomarkers of non-emotional aspects of behavioural regulation related to the construction of behaviour in fast-changing and current situations. As examples of the role of hormones, the review summarised their contribution to temperament traits of Sensation Seeking (SS) and Empathy (EMP), which FET considers as non-emotionality traits related to behavioural orientation. SS is presented here as based on (higher) testosterone (fluctuating), adrenaline and (low) cortisol systems, and EMP, as based on (higher) oxytocin, reciprocally coupled with vasopressin and (lower) testosterone. Due to the involvement of gonadal hormones, there are sex and age differences in these traits that could be explained by evolutionary theory. There are, therefore, specific neurochemical biomarkers differentiating (OR-based) dispositional emotionality and (hormones-based) body’s regulation in fast-changing events. Here we propose to consider dispositional emotionality associated with OR systems as emotionality in a true sense, whereas to consider hormonal ensembles regulating SS and EMP as systems of behavioural orientation and not emotionality.