DMG26 Academic Article uri icon

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  • Multiple myeloma presents with numerous primary genomic lesions that broadly dichotomize cases into hyperdiploidy or IgH translocated. Clinically, these large alterations are assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for risk stratification at diagnosis. Secondary focal events, including indels and single-nucleotide variants, are also reported; however, their clinical correlates are poorly described, and FISH has insufficient resolution to assess many of them. This study examined the exonic sequences of 26 genes reported to be mutated in >1% of patients with myeloma using a custom panel. These exons were sequenced to approximately 1000 times in a cohort of 76 patients from Atlantic Canada with detailed clinical correlates and in four multiple myeloma cell lines. Across the 76 patients, 255 mutations and 33 focal copy number variations were identified. High-severity mutations and mutations predicted by FATHMM-XF to be pathogenic identified patients with significantly reduced progression-free survival. These mutations were mutually exclusive from the Revised International Staging System high-risk FISH markers and were independent of all biochemical parameters of the Revised International Staging System. Applying our panel to patients classified by FISH to be standard risk successfully reclassified patients into high- and standard-risk groups. Furthermore, three patients in our cohort each had two high-risk markers; two of these patients developed plasma cell leukemia, a rare and severe clinical sequela of multiple myeloma.


  • Cutler, Samuel D
  • Knopf, Philipp
  • Campbell, Clinton
  • Thoni, Andrea
  • Abou El Hassan, Mohamed
  • Forward, Nicholas
  • White, Darrell
  • Wagner, Julie
  • Goudie, Marissa
  • Boudreau, Jeanette E
  • Kennedy, Barry E
  • Gujar, Shashi
  • Gaston, Daniel
  • Elnenaei, Manal O

publication date

  • December 2021