Tobacco use among transgender and gender non-binary youth in Brazil Academic Article uri icon

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  • Abstract Transgender and gender non-binary youth are particularly vulnerable to tobacco smoking and susceptible to smoking adverse health outcomes. That is, they are in special risk to start smoking and, after starting, they may face worse outcomes when comparing to their cisgender peers. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate factors associated with tobacco use among transgender and gender non-binary youth. Brazilian youth aged 16 to 25 who identify as transgender or gender non-binary answered an online questionnaire. Poisson regression with robust variance was run to predict smoking cigarettes based on individual and environmental factors. 14.1% of 206 youth reported smoking cigarettes daily, whereas 9.3% of participants reported smoking e-cigarettes occasionally. Drug use, lack of social support, deprivation, discrimination, the wait for medical gender-affirming procedures and being outside school were associated with smoking cigarettes. Contextual and individual factors should be further explored in causal analysis and taken into consideration when planning smoking prevention and cessation interventions for transgender and gender non-binary youth.


  • Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses
  • Churchill, Siobhan
  • Schneider, Maiko
  • Soll, Bianca
  • Costa, Angelo Brandelli
  • Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

publication date

  • January 2021