Measuring sodium intake: research and clinical applications Academic Article uri icon

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abstract

  • Although most current guidelines recommend a daily sodium intake of less than 2.3 g/day, most people do not have a reliable estimate of their usual sodium intake. In this review, we describe the different methods used to estimate sodium intake and discuss each method in the context of specific clinical or research questions. We suggest the following classification for sodium measurement methods: preingestion measurement (controlled intake), peri-ingestion measurement (concurrent), and postingestion measurement. On the basis of the characteristics of the available tools, we suggest that: validated 24-h recall methods are a reasonable approach to estimate sodium intake in large epidemiologic studies and individual clinical counselling sessions, methods (such as single 24-h urine collection, single-time urine collection, or 24-h recall methods), are of value in population-level estimation of mean sodium intake, but are less suited for individual level estimation and a feeding-trial design using a controlled diet is the most valid and reliable method for establishing the effect of reducing sodium to a specific intake target in early phase clinical trials. By considering the various approaches to sodium measurement, investigators and public health practitioners may be better informed in assessing the health implications of sodium consumption at the individual and population level.

publication date

  • December 2021