Gastric peristalsis is critically dependent on an underlying electrical conduction system. Recent years have witnessed substantial progress in clarifying the operations of this system, including its pacemaking units, its cellular architecture, and slow-wave propagation patterns. Advanced techniques have been developed for assessing its functions at high spatiotemporal resolutions. This review synthesizes and evaluates this progress, with a focus on human and translational physiology. A current conception of the initiation and conduction of slow-wave activity in the human stomach is provided first, followed by a detailed discussion of its organization at the cellular and tissue level. Particular emphasis is then given to how gastric electrical disorders may contribute to disease states. Gastric dysfunction continues to grow in their prevalence and impact, and while gastric dysrhythmia is established as a clear and pervasive feature in several major gastric disorders, its role in explaining pathophysiology and informing therapy is still emerging. New insights from high-resolution gastric mapping are evaluated, together with historical data from electrogastrography, and the physiological relevance of emerging biomarkers from body surface mapping such as retrograde propagating slow waves. Knowledge gaps requiring further physiological research are highlighted.