The Association Between Socioeconomic Status, Sex, Race / Ethnicity and In-Hospital Mortality Among Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure Academic Article uri icon

  • Overview
  • Research
  • Identity
  • Additional Document Info
  • View All


  • Background

    The association between socioeconomic status (SES), sex, race / ethnicity and outcomes during hospitalization for heart failure (HF) has not previously been investigated.

    Methods and results

    We analyzed HF hospitalizations in the United States National Inpatient Sample between 2015 and 2017. Using a hierarchical, multivariable Poisson regression model to adjust for hospital- and patient-level factors, we assessed the association between SES, sex, and race / ethnicity and all-cause in-hospital mortality. We estimated the direct costs (USD) across SES groups. Among 4,287,478 HF hospitalizations, 40.8% were in high SES, 48.7% in female, and 70.0% in White patients. Relative to these comparators, low SES (homelessness or lowest quartile of median neighborhood income) (relative risk [RR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.05) and male sex (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.07-1.11) were associated with increased risk, whereas Black (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.76-0.81) and Hispanic (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.93) race / ethnicity were associated with a decreased risk of in-hospital mortality (5.1% of all hospitalizations). There were significant interactions between race / ethnicity and both, SES (P < .01) and sex (P = .04), such that racial/ethnic differences in outcome were more pronounced in low SES groups and in male patients. The median direct cost of admission was lower in low vs high SES groups ($9324.60 vs $10,940.40), female vs male patients ($9866.60 vs $10,217.10), and Black vs White patients ($9077.20 vs $10,019.80). The median costs increased with SES in all demographic groups primarily related to greater procedural utilization.


    SES, sex, and race / ethnicity were independently associated with in-hospital mortality during HF hospitalization, highlighting possible care disparities. Racial/ethnic differences in outcome were more pronounced in low SES groups and in male patients.


  • Averbuch, T
  • Mohamed, MO
  • Islam, S
  • Defilippis, EM
  • Breathett, K
  • Alkhouli, MA
  • Michos, ED
  • Martin, GP
  • Kontopantelis, E
  • Mamas, MA
  • Van Spall, Harriette

publication date

  • May 2022