The Association Between Socioeconomic Status, Sex, Race / Ethnicity and In-Hospital Mortality Among Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure Journal Articles uri icon

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  • BACKGROUND: The association between socioeconomic status (SES), sex, race / ethnicity and outcomes during hospitalization for heart failure (HF) has not previously been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed HF hospitalizations in the United States National Inpatient Sample between 2015 and 2017. Using a hierarchical, multivariable Poisson regression model to adjust for hospital- and patient-level factors, we assessed the association between SES, sex, and race / ethnicity and all-cause in-hospital mortality. We estimated the direct costs (USD) across SES groups. Among 4,287,478 HF hospitalizations, 40.8% were in high SES, 48.7% in female, and 70.0% in White patients. Relative to these comparators, low SES (homelessness or lowest quartile of median neighborhood income) (relative risk [RR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.05) and male sex (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.07-1.11) were associated with increased risk, whereas Black (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.76-0.81) and Hispanic (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.93) race / ethnicity were associated with a decreased risk of in-hospital mortality (5.1% of all hospitalizations). There were significant interactions between race / ethnicity and both, SES (P < .01) and sex (P = .04), such that racial/ethnic differences in outcome were more pronounced in low SES groups and in male patients. The median direct cost of admission was lower in low vs high SES groups ($9324.60 vs $10,940.40), female vs male patients ($9866.60 vs $10,217.10), and Black vs White patients ($9077.20 vs $10,019.80). The median costs increased with SES in all demographic groups primarily related to greater procedural utilization. CONCLUSIONS: SES, sex, and race / ethnicity were independently associated with in-hospital mortality during HF hospitalization, highlighting possible care disparities. Racial/ethnic differences in outcome were more pronounced in low SES groups and in male patients.


  • Averbuch, T
  • Mohamed, MO
  • Islam, S
  • Defilippis, EM
  • Breathett, K
  • Alkhouli, MA
  • Michos, ED
  • Martin, GP
  • Kontopantelis, E
  • Mamas, MA
  • Van Spall, Harriette

publication date

  • May 2022