What Psychological, Physical, Lifestyle, and Knowledge Factors Are Associated With Excess or Inadequate Weight Gain During Pregnancy? A Cross-Sectional Survey
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OBJECTIVE: Excess weight gain during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of overweight and obesity in both women and their children. Conversely, inadequate weight gain can predispose to growth restriction, which is also associated with childhood obesity. Because most pregnant women now gain more weight than is recommended in guidelines and a substantial portion gain less than the recommended amounts, we sought to determine factors associated with inappropriate weight gain, including physical, lifestyle, knowledge, and particularly psychological factors. METHODS: We conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of English-speaking women with a live, singleton gestation. Biologically relevant variables significant at P < 0.10 were included in multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Three hundred thirty women completed the survey, a response rate of 90.7%. Gaining weight above the amount recommended in guidelines was associated with planning to do so (adjusted OR [aOR] 11.18; 95% CI 4.45 to 28.06), bedtime television (aOR 2.38; 95% CI 1.08 to 5.23), and higher emotional instability scores (aOR 1.26; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.44). Inadequate weight gain was associated with less satisfaction with body weight (aOR 4.84; 95% CI 1.56 to 15.02) and bedtime television (aOR 3.92; 95% CI 1.50 to 10.30), while self-efficacy towards healthy weight was protective (aOR 0.91; 95% CI 0.83 to 0.99). CONCLUSION: Planned weight gain was most strongly associated with excess gestational weight gain, followed by bedtime television watching and emotional instability, while inadequate gain was associated with less satisfaction with body weight and bedtime television watching. Better characterization of psychological and other factors that predict inappropriate gain will be critical for providing a basis for interventions.
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