Efficacy of Salmonella Bacteriophage S1 Delivered and Released by Alginate Beads in a Chicken Model of Infection Academic Article uri icon

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  • Modern bacteriophage encapsulation methods based on polymers such as alginate have been developed recently for their use in phage therapy for veterinary purposes. In birds, it has been proven that using this delivery system allows the release of the bacteriophage in the small intestine, the site of infection by Salmonella spp. This work designed an approach for phage therapy using encapsulation by ionotropic gelation of the lytic bacteriophage S1 for Salmonella enterica in 2% w/v alginate beads using 2% w/v calcium chloride as crosslinking agent. This formulation resulted in beads with an average size of 3.73 ± 0.04 mm and an encapsulation efficiency of 70%. In vitro, the beads protected the bacteriophages from pH 3 and released them at higher pH. To confirm that this would protect the bacteriophages from gastrointestinal pH changes, we tested the phage infectivity in vivo assay. Using a model chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, we confirmed that after 3 h of the beads delivery, infective phages were present in the chicken’s duodenal and caecal sections. This study demonstrates that our phage formulation is an effective system for release and delivery of bacteriophage S1 against Salmonella Enteritidis with potential use in the poultry sector.


  • Gomez-Garcia, Janeth
  • Chavez-Carbajal, Alejandra
  • Segundo-Arizmendi, Nallelyt
  • Baron-Pichardo, Miriam G
  • Mendoza-Elvira, Susana E
  • Hernandez-Baltazar, Efren
  • Hynes, Alexander
  • Torres-Angeles, Oscar

publication date

  • September 25, 2021