A systematic review and meta-analysis of Patient-Rated Wrist (and Hand) Evaluation (PRWE/PRWHE) measurement properties, translation, and/ or cross-cultural adaptation Academic Article uri icon

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  • Purpose

    To critically appraise, summarize, and synthesize the evidence on the psychometric, translation and/or cross-cultural adaptation properties of the Patient-Rated Wrist (and Hand) Evaluation (PRWE/PRWHE).

    Materials and methods

    Four electronic databases were searched from 1998 to February 2021. Studies addressing psychometric, translation and/or cross-cultural adaptation properties were included. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed methodological quality of the studies using the COSMIN checklist. Where possible, meta-analysis was conducted to pool the estimates of each measurement property. Otherwise, qualitative synthesis was conducted. The overall quality of evidence on each measurement property was provided using GRADE principles.


    Forty-four studies were eligible for data extraction. The PRWE/PRWHE has been translated into 21 languages. The best factor structure was a one-dimensional construct with three unidimensional subscales. High-quality evidence supports very good structural and cross-cultural validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, measurement error, and hypothesis testing for construct validity against DASH in wrist and hand injuries. However, low-quality evidence supports acceptable responsiveness property. The minimal clinically important difference for the PRWE/PRWHE was 24 points for patient-level comparisons and 17 for groups.


    High-quality evidence supports the use of PRWE/PRWHE as a reliable, valid, and structurally sound questionnaire to assess pain and disability in patients with various wrist and hand injuries. Registration code: CRD42020180250IMPLICATION FOR REHABILITATIONSThe PRWE/PRWHE is a reliable and valid anatomical region-specific measure to assess pain and disability in patients with wrist and hand injuries.Each individual subscale of the PRWE/PRHWE (pain, specific activities, and usual activities) can be used separately as a measure of pain and disability.Change scores less than 9/100 in the total score, should be considered as measurement error, not ‎real change. Changes in the total score between 17 and 24/100 could be assumed as the minimal ‎clinically important change in the condition of patients over time. ‎The PRWE/PRWHE is available in 21 different languages and has been successfully adapted into highly diverse cultures. This point could be considered as one of the merits of using PRWE/PRWHE in clinical settings in multi-lingual and multi-cultural countries, when clinicians need a psychometrically sound ‎patient reported wrist/hand measure.‎.


publication date

  • September 10, 2021