Outcomes Associated With Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy in Twin Compared With Singleton Gestations
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ObjectiveTo evaluate whether pregnancy outcomes associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in twin pregnancies differ relatively from those in singleton pregnancy.
MethodsWe conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of all women with a liveborn singleton or twin hospital birth in Ontario, Canada, between 2012 and 2019. Data were obtained from the Better Outcomes Registry & Network Ontario. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between women with and without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in twin gestations, and separately in singleton gestations. Adjusted relative risks (aRRs) and 95% CIs were generated using modified Poisson regression and were compared between twins and singletons using relative risk ratios.
ResultsOverall, 932,218 women met the study criteria, of whom 917,542 (98.4%) and 14,676 (1.6%) had singleton and twin gestations, respectively. The incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was higher in women with twin compared with singleton gestations (14.4% vs 6.4%, aRR 1.85 [1.76-1.94]). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were associated with certain adverse outcomes in singleton gestations only and with other adverse outcomes in both the singleton and twin gestations, but the aRR was lower in twins. For example, preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation (singletons: 15.2% [hypertensive disorders of pregnancy] vs 5.4% [no hypertensive disorders of pregnancy], aRR 2.42; twins: 67.5% [hypertensive disorders of pregnancy] vs 50.4% [no hypertensive disorders of pregnancy], aRR 1.30) and neonatal respiratory morbidity (singletons: 16.3% [hypertensive disorders of pregnancy] vs 8.7% [no hypertensive disorders of pregnancy], aRR 1.50; twins: 39.8% [hypertensive disorders of pregnancy] vs 32.7% [no hypertensive disorders of pregnancy], aRR 1.13). These findings persisted in the subgroups of women with preeclampsia and early-onset preeclampsia.
ConclusionsAlthough the absolute risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes is higher in twin compared with singleton pregnancies, the incremental risk of adverse outcomes associated with hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancies is lower than the incremental risk in singleton pregnancies. These findings may be attributed in part to the higher baseline risk of preterm birth and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in twin compared with singleton pregnancies.
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