Imaging Biomarkers and Their Impact on Therapeutic Decision-Making in the Management of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Journal Articles uri icon

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  • These recommendations, produced by a group of Canadian retina experts, have been developed to assist both retina specialists and general ophthalmologists in the management of vision-threatening neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The recommendations are based on published evidence as well as collective experience and expertise in routine clinical practice. We provide an update on practice principles for optimal patient care, focusing on identified imaging biomarkers, in particular retinal fluid, as well as current and emerging therapeutic approaches. Algorithms for delivering high-quality care and improving long-term patient outcomes are provided, with an emphasis on timely and appropriate treatment to preserve and maintain vision. In the context of nAMD, increasing macular fluid or leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA) may indicate disease activity regardless of its location. Early elimination of intraretinal fluid (IRF) is of particular relevance as it is a prognostic indicator of worse visual outcomes. Robust referral pathways for second opinion and peer-to-peer consultations must be in place for cases not responding to intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy.


  • Wong, David
  • Berger, Alan R
  • Bourgault, Serge
  • Chen, John
  • Colleaux, Kevin
  • Cruess, Alan F
  • Dookeran, Ravi I
  • Gauthier, Danny
  • Hurley, Bernard
  • Kapusta, Michael A
  • Kertes, Peter J
  • Qian, Cynthia X
  • Samad, Arif
  • Sheidow, Thomas
  • Whelan, James H

publication date

  • 2021